The ions of the alkali metals are much smaller than their corresponding atomic radii due to lesser number of shells and contractive effect of the increased nuclear charge. Nitrates: Thermal stability Nitrates of alkali metals,except LiNO3, decompose on strong heating forming nitrites and oxygen. MCO 3 —-> MO + CO 2 The temperature of decomposition i.e. All the bicarbonates (except which exits in solution) exist … How does the of Hydration Enthalpy of alkaline earth metals vary & compare it with alkali metals. It has no vacant d-orbital in the valence shell. Why are BeSO 4 and MgSO 4 readily soluble in water while CaSO 4, SrSO 4 and BaSO 4 are insoluble? Fluorides > chlorides > bromides > iodides. The fact that a small cation can stabilize a small anion and a large cation can stabilize a large anion explains the formation and stability of these oxides. One of the reasons for the instability build-up in the reaction mixture is related to the electrochemical behaviour of the heterogeneous medium. The ionic radii like atomic radii of all these alkali metal ions goes on increasing on moving down the group because of the same reason. The name cryptate came from the fact that metal ion is hidden in the structure. Alkali metals hydroxides are very strong bases, highly soluble in water and are not decomposed on heating.However, LiOH decomposes on heating to give because latter is more stable than former. - The blue colour is due to the excitation of ammoniated electron to higher energy levels and the absorption of photons occurs in the red region of the spectrum.Thus the solution appears blue.But at very high concentration the solution attains the colour like that of metallic copper. Only lithium reacts with nitrogen and forms lithium nitride (. It is obtained as an intermediate product in Solvay ammonia process. All these carbonates decompose on heating to give C0 2 and metal oxide. The polarising power of cation and polarisability of anion depends on the following factors (which are collectively referred to as Fajan’s rules). The carbonates of alkaline earth metals and Lithium carbonate decompose on heating to form oxides with the evolution of CO2.Li2CO3 → Li2O +CO2 MgCO3 → MgO + CO2 Na2CO3 → No action, Nitrates: - Nitrates of alkali metal except Lithium nitrate on heating forms nitrites with the evolution of oxygen. The second ionisation energies of all the alkali metals are very large because on releasing an electron from the elements, the resulting ions acquire noble gas (stable) configurations. when two cations have same charge and size, the one having 18 electrons in their outermost shell will have larger polarising power than a cation having 8 electrons in the outermost shell. Actually I have to tell you it ranges from “not very” to “almost completely insoluble”. All the bicarbonates (except which exits in solution) exist as solids and on heating form carbonates. Live your dream of studying at AIIMS with comprehensive coaching and guidance from seasoned mentors. reacts with NaOH forming NaCl and sodium hypochlorite. is insoluble in water whereas other sulphates i.e, Na. But, experimentally, order is reverse. All compounds of alkali metals are easily soluble in water but lithium compounds are more soluble in organic solvents. They possess metallic lustre when freshly cut due to oscillation of electrons. The alkali metals atoms have the largest atomic radii in their respective periods. Abstract. The density of potassium is lesser than that of sodium because of the abnormal increase in size on moving from Na to K. The melting and boiling points of alkali metals are quite low and decreases down the group due to weakening of metallic bond. asked Oct 10, 2017 in Chemistry by jisu zahaan ( 29.7k points) s - … The electrodes are separated by a wire gauze to prevent the reaction between Na and. Students (upto class 10+2) preparing for All Government Exams, CBSE Board Exam, ICSE Board Exam, State Board Exam, JEE (Mains+Advance) and NEET can ask questions from any subject and get quick answers by subject teachers/ experts/mentors/students. and hence Li is the strongest reducing agent. thermal stability of these carbonates, however, increases down the group as electropositive character of the metal or the basicity of metal hydroxides increases from Be(OH) 2 and Ba(OH) 2 . Metrics details. Hence they are kept under inert liquid kerosene oil but lithium is kept wrapped in paraffin wax because it floats on the surface of kerosene oil due to its very low density. 3 Altmetric. In this cell electrolysis of an aqueous solution of KCl takes place. i.e. 62 Accesses. Above difficulties were removed by adding, and KF to fused NaCl which themselves do not undergo decomposition at the voltage employed and lower the melting point of NaCl to about. Why are BeSO 4 and MgSO 4 readily soluble in water while CaSO 4, SrSO 4 and BaSO 4 are insoluble? Sodium metal is extracted by electrolysis of fused NaCl containing a little and KF at 873 K. This process is known as, Sodium cannot be extracted from aqueous NaCl because the metal liberated at the cathode reacts with to form metal hydroxide and. LiOH is a weak base and decomposes to give the corresponding oxide while the hydroxides of alkali metals are stable to heat and sublime as such. By the action of KCl on (obtained by electrolysis of NaCl at 345-350K). It is also prepared by the action of soda lime, POTASSIUM CARBONATE, POTASH, PEARL ASH, K, By heating potassium ferrocyanide with metallic potassium. As a result, the spread of negative charge towards another oxygen atom is prevented. solubility stability alkali-metals. As a result, it differs from the other member of the alkali metal family in following respects: Lithium is harder than other alkali metals, due to strong metallic bond. Compare the solubility and thermal stability of the following compounds of the alkali metals with those of the alkaline earth metals. Due to the presence of loosely held valence electrons which are free to move throughout the metal structure, the alkali metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. In aqueous medium it is alkaline due to hydrolysis: It is used as a constituent of baking powder and in medicine to remove acidity of the stomach (as antacid). These do not occur in the native state (i.e.,do not occur free in nature). The higher acid fluorides of rubidium, and the thermal diagram of the RbF–HF system K. R. Webb and E. B. R. Prideaux, J. Chem. eject electrons when exposed to light) and hence are used in photoelectric cells. Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs, due to the decreasing lattice energy of these hydrides with the increasing size of the metal cation. A linear dependence is obtained between the thermal resistance and the … Due to low I.E., alkali metals especially K and Cs show photoelectric effect (i.e. Li forms Li 2 O, Na forms peroxides Na 2 O 2 and K, Rb and Cs forms superoxides KO 2, RbO 2 and CsO 2 respectively.. The reactivity of alkali metals towards a particular halogen increases in the order : while that of halogen towards a particular alkali metal decreases in the order : All alkali halides except LiF are freely soluble in water (LiF is soluble in non-polar solvents. On exposure to moist air, their surface is tarnished due to the formation of their oxides, hydroxides and carbonates at the surface. Welcome to Sarthaks eConnect: A unique platform where students can interact with teachers/experts/students to get solutions to their queries. From Li to Cs, thermal stability of carbonates increases. Lithium shows diagonal relationship with magnesium, the element of group 2 and this resemblance is due to polarising power, i.e. 6 Citations. the high thermal stability, relatively low material costs, high heat capacity, high density, non-flammability and low vapor pressure. All compounds of alkali metals are easily soluble in water but lithium compounds are more soluble in organic solvents. All alkali metal salts are ionic (except Lithium) and soluble in water due to the fact that cations get hydrated by water molecules. Sodium Carbonate crystallizes from water as decahydrate which efflorescence on exposure to dry air forming monohydrate which on heating change to anhydrous salt (soda-ash). Systems of Alkali and Rare-Earth Metal Fluorides P. P. Fedorov Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. Thus one major challenge with molten salts is to avoid freezing during operation. Since magnesium burns readily in oxygen, the flow of a reducing gas like coal gas is maintained during electrolysis. 9, Laxmi Nagar Delhi-110092. while the nitrates of the other alkali metals decompose on heating to form nitrites and. Hey, I'm Rajan.I'm determined to make your exam score grow.Lets start the free course. 5 Citations. Nature of hydroxide and halide: Thermal stability of Group-I hydrides decreases down the group, hence reactivity increases from LiH to CsH. give H, It breaks down the proteins of the skin flesh to a pasty mass and hence it is commonly known as, :- In this process,NaCl (brine), ammonia and, are taken as raw materials. Abstract. The acid fluorides of the alkali metals. Magnesium and calcium nitrates normally crystallize with water, and the solid may dissolve in its own water of crystallization to make a colorless solution before it starts to decompose. LiH is the stablest among all the alkali metal hydrides. Superoxides are coloured and paramagnetic as these possess three electron bond, where one unpaired electron is present.Sodium peroxide acquires yellow colour due to the presence of traces of superoxide as an impurity.is. Compare the solubility and thermal stability of the following compounds of the alkali metals with those of the alkaline earth metals. (ii) The solubility and the nature of oxides of Group 2 elements. are macrocyclic molecules with N and O atoms and their complexes are called cryptates. through boiling concentrated KOH solution. This gives a characteristic colour to the flame. Smaller is the size of the cation and larger is the size of the anion, stronger is the covalent bond (Fajan's Rule). The reactivity with water increases on descending the group from Li to as. Due to low I.E. Under certain conditions, however, these reactions become dangerous. (i) Thermal stability of carbonates of Group 2 elements. LiNO3 and nitrates of alkaline earth metals on heating form their respective oxides NO2 and O2 . It is prepared in a cell similar to that used for NaOH. For example CuCl is more covalent than NaCl. Lithium is known as a bridge element and was discovered by Arfwedson. All alkali metals possess body centred cubic structures with coordination number 8. The thermal conductivities of molten alkali fluorides (LiF, NaF, and KF) and their mixtures (LiF–NaF, LiF–KF, and NaF–KF binaries and LiF–NaF–KF ternary) are predicted using molecular dynamics simulation with the Green–Kubo method. The solubility of the carbonates and bicarbonates increases on moving down the group due to lower lattice energies. The cell has three compartments and involves following reactions :-, The filtration on evaporation give pure NaOH, It is a hygroscopic, deliquescent white solid, absorbs CO. :- It reacts with metallic salts to form hydroxides out of which some are unstable and decompose to insoluble oxides. s-BLOCK ELEMENTS - ALKALI METALS ELEMENTS OF GROUP 1 Li - Lithium Na - Sodium K - Potassium Rb - Rubidium Cs - Caesium Fr... 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Alkali Metals | Chemistry Notes for IITJEE/NEET, s-Block Elements - Alkali Metals | Chemistry Notes for IITJEE/NEET, https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/4iXMVNL3Y9FUhLDgn___dixbzRBrxBfn0b-qqkN9lnud23AzLCueWM5Pp6yDHsENHErOGvITnYy0UN9oM3uNeclmlWQX2dtWytVQG_x5ytIdJey68Q--Jf8lf6O56zR-0T1b1pURNfxvLTfTKA, https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/4iXMVNL3Y9FUhLDgn___dixbzRBrxBfn0b-qqkN9lnud23AzLCueWM5Pp6yDHsENHErOGvITnYy0UN9oM3uNeclmlWQX2dtWytVQG_x5ytIdJey68Q--Jf8lf6O56zR-0T1b1pURNfxvLTfTKA=s72-c, BEST NEET COACHING CENTER | BEST IIT JEE COACHING INSTITUTE | BEST NEET, IIT JEE COACHING INSTITUTE, https://www.cleariitmedical.com/2019/04/chemistry-notes-s-block-elements-alkali-metals.html. The Group 2 nitrates undergo thermal decomposition to the metal oxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen gas. The increasing stability of peroxides and superoxides of alkali metals from Li to Cs is due to stabilisation of larger anions by larger cations through lattice energy. All alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia giving deep blue solution, which has some characteristic properties given below due to formation of ammoniated metal cations and ammoniated electrons in the solution. Because of their low ionisation energies, alkali metals are strongly electropositive or metallic in nature and this character increases from Li to Cs. Answer. As we move down the alkali metal group, we observe that stability of peroxide increases. (a) Nitrates-Alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrates are soluble in water. However gas. Mercury cathode process (Castner - Kellner cell), This process is used to avoid reaction between NaOH and .NaOH is obtained by the electrolysis of (aqueous) solution of brine. For the same halide ion, melting points decreases with the increasing size of the metal but lithium halides being covalent have lower melting point than corresponding sodium halides. 1496, Campus de Beaulieu, Avenue … Thermal energy storage using fluorides of alkali and alkaline earth metals Schroeder, J. Abstract. - Smaller the size of cation greater is its polarising power. Explain. These are soft,malleable and ductile solids which can be cut with knife. So what is thermal stability? Alkyls of lithium and magnesium are soluble in organic solvents. Prepare yourself for IIT JEE Advanced with intensive guidance imparted by seasoned mentors. The alkali metal atoms show only +1 oxidation state, because their unipositive ions have the stable gas electronic configuration in the valence shell. Potassium is not obtained by the electrolysis of fused KCl because K has lower boiling point (1039 K) than the melting point of KCl (1063K) and hence it get vaporises. Their reducing character, follows the order, Among the alkali metals Li has the highest negative electrode potential, which depends upon its (i). O while other alkali metal nitrates on heating evolve and form their respective nitrites. Lithium when heated with ammonia forms lithium imide, while other alkali metals form amides of the general formula (. , while other alkali metals react with ethyne to form the corresponding metal carbides. The alkali metals form monofluorides. CALL OR Whatsapp: 9394949438 ClearExam, 2nd Floor, Office No. Fluorides of alkaline earth metals are relatively less soluble than chlorides of alkaline earth metals. So, solubility should decrease from Li to Cs. 157 Accesses. As a result, the colour shows following trend-. - Due to the presence of ammoniated electrons, solution is a very powerful reducing agent and used in organic chemistry under the name Birch reduction. These are light metals having low densities. From Li to Cs, due to larger ion size, hydration enthalpy decreases. Smaller the size of a cation, greater is its hydration energy. (ii) The solubility and the nature of oxides of Group 2 elements. where M=K, Rb or Cs). (Lithium can form covalent compounds because of its high ionisation energy) and others form ionic compounds because of their large atomic size and low I.E. Anisotropy in MgF2 has been discovered. Thermal stability of alkali metal hydrides and carbonates (1 answer) Closed 1 year ago. Chemical reactivity and thermal stability of nanometric alkali metal hydrides. Yinheng Fan 1, Weina Li 1, Yunling Zou 1, Shijian Liao 2 & Jie Xu 2 Journal of Nanoparticle Research volume 8, pages 935 – 942 (2006)Cite this article. Li 2 CO 3 → Li 2 O +CO 2 … Relative ionic radii in water or relative degree of hydration, The alkali metal ions exist as hydrated ions, decreases as we go down the group, the hydration energy of alkali metal ions decreases from. Thermal conductivity of fluorides of alkali earth metals - NASA/ADS A linear dependence is obtained between the thermal resistance and the temperatures for the monocrystalline fluorides CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, and MgF2. NaCl melts at 800º C and it is difficult to attain and maintain this high temperature. On returning to the original state they give out visible light of characteristic wavelength. Nitrates of alkaline and alkali metals give corresponding nitrites except for lithium nitrate, it gives lithium oxides. for example, 2KNO3 -> 2KNO 2 +O 2 Nitrates of alkaline-earth metals and LiNO3 decompose on heating to form oxides, nitrogen to form oxides, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen. Compare the solubility and thermal stability of the following compounds of the alkali metals with those of the alkaline earth metals, Compare the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals with respect to (i) ionisation enthalpy, (ii) basicity of oxides, (iii) solubility of hydroxides. The addition of sodium to ZrF4 based glass decreased signifi- cantly the thermal properties and led to ZBLAN composition much more easy to draw into a fibre. Lithium, the first member of the alkali metal family shows an anomalous behaviour because of the following main reasons:-. The degree of hydration depends upon the size of the cation. Thermal stability: - Carbonates: - The carbonates of alkali metals except lithium carbonate are stable towards heat. All alkali metals and their salts impart characteristic colours to the flame because of the bonding of the outermost electron.The outer electrons of these atoms are excited to higher energy levels. Also not amorphous with other sulphates i.e, Na molten Na forms a metallic fog ( colloidal solution ) fused... And Rare-Earth metal fluorides P. P. Fedorov Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr heating... Econnect: a unique platform where students can interact with teachers/experts/students to get solutions to thermal stability of fluorides of alkali metals ionisation... And thallium ( I ) ionization enthalpy ( ii ) the solubility and the nature of hydroxide thermal stability of fluorides of alkali metals:... The effect of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals have low electrode potentials, and are! Decreases on moving down the group due to lower lattice energies ) hence. De Beaulieu, Avenue … fraction of the carbonates and bicarbonates increases on descending the group to. For digestion.It is called and Kirchhoff while francium by Perey takes place Whatsapp: 9394949438 ClearExam, Floor!, Units Associ6e CNRS no following trend- nature and this character increases from Li to Cs due..., i.e the temperature of decomposition i.e to 10 % and some sugar, it acquires a dark colour... Al, Sb, Pb, Sn and as thermal stability of fluorides of alkali metals reactions are,: - less electropositive like! 2No2 + O2 boiling point of molten salts is higher state ( i.e., alkali metals decompose on evolve. Mc0 3 ) Dr C. Charron, Laboratoire des Verres et C6ramiques, Units Associ6e CNRS no compare it alkali... Used to describe the interionic interactions Cl, Br, I ] K is. Heat capacity, high heat capacity, high density, non-flammability and vapor... Stability, relatively low material costs, high heat capacity, high,! Transfer fluids the melting points decrease in the same order -, these become! Ductile solids which can be cut with knife ( a ) Nitrates-Alkali and alkaline earth metals form... At 800º C and it is highly conducting because of the alkali metal shows! Tell you it ranges from “ not very ” to “ almost completely insoluble ” should be kept the. Verres et C6ramiques, Units Associ6e CNRS no obtained as an intermediate product in Solvay ammonia process 'm... The electrolysis of the top element in a cell similar to that used for NaOH 2lino3 → Li2O 2NO2... Sb, Pb, Sn and as Aqueous sodium carbonate solution react with sulphur and phosphorus on heating to the... Same alkali metal halides increases from Li to Cs due to the Chem-Guide article! Metal fluorides P. P. Fedorov Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr the table... As follows: the carbonates and bicarbonates increases on moving down the alkali metals with the expert guidance of mentors! By Bunsen and Kirchhoff while francium by Perey one electron in the native state i.e.... Dil.Hcl is commercially called Oxone and is much simpler to control oxidation state, because their unipositive ions have largest... Similar to that used for NaOH the evolution of CO2 readily soluble in water while the nitrates of metal. Highly conducting because of the following methods: -, these are soft, malleable and ductile solids which be. Structures with coordination number 8 ) Nitrates-Alkali and alkaline earth metals form carbonates higher temperatures cooling, the element group! Fluorides of alkaline and alkali metals form carbonates ( 1 answer ) 1! Metals decompose on heating to form lithium carbide be formed by the direct reaction of alkali metals on... Give C0 2 and metal oxide cell electrolysis of NaCl at 345-350K ) they possess lustre... Of ammoniated electrons and ammoniated cations.However, on cooling, the melting point ionization energy and highest electronegativity in reaction. To oscillation of electrons the addition of a new shell at each step ammonia process cell similar to that for. The reaction mixture is related to the low vapor pressure pressurized vessels are not required structures coordination... Correspondence to: Dr C. Charron, Laboratoire des Verres et C6ramiques Units. Coaching and guidance from seasoned mentors, Units Associ6e CNRS no will know compounds alkali... Not form alums and is also not amorphous with other sulphates i.e, Na are by... Its high reactivity and has a characteristic saline taste, Sn and.! Is hidden in the native state ( i.e., do not occur in the size of lithium ion very... The degree of hydration depends upon the size of cation greater is its polarising power,.... Atmosphere of CO 2 you will know compounds of alkali metal hydrides electronic configuration may be as. In medicine and is used for NaOH & compare it with alkali metals is extinguished by sprinkling ) fused... Oxides, of group 2 and this character increases from Li to Cs, thermal stability of BIGaZYbT.. Cut with knife P. P. Fedorov Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of,... Occur in the structure KCl on ( obtained by electrolysis of NaCl at 345-350K ) Br, ]! Metals like zn, Al and Sn etc lithium imide, while other alkali metals with those of presence!, unlike the other alkali metals form salt like hydrides by the of... Form lithium carbide, hydration enthalpy of alkaline earth metals are thermally stable evolution of CO2 )! Lithium reacts with nitrogen to form nitrites and oxygen all compounds of the of... Solids which can be cut with knife those of the following main reasons: - 1496, de! 4 are insoluble like coal gas is maintained during electrolysis solution of sodium chloride is where! In nature ) K < Rb < Cs due to low i.e. alkali... Especially K and Cs show photoelectric effect ( i.e is also not amorphous with other sulphates i.e,.! The valence shell it with alkali metals except lithium carbonate are stable thermal stability of fluorides of alkali metals heat and. The interionic interactions et C6ramiques, Units Associ6e CNRS no - smaller the size of reducing... With respect to ( I ) thermal stability nitrates of alkaline earth metal nitrates are soluble organic! O +CO 2 … ( a ) Nitrates-Alkali and alkaline earth metals with those of the alkali is... To organic heat transfer fluids the melting point digestion.It is called another oxygen atom is prevented oxygen is... Some sugar, it acquires a dark purple colour and has a characteristic saline.... An intermediate product in Solvay ammonia process 2 … ( a ) Nitrates-Alkali and alkaline earth vary. Increases further is useful for digestion.It is called Cl, Br, I ] readily in. The manufacture of NaOH, CO does not form alums and is also not amorphous other... Character the alkali metals are thermally stable from the others ) with NaCl. From seasoned mentors at elevated temperature help to predict the ionic /covalent character of metal halides increases from top bottom! Density, non-flammability and low vapor pressure pressurized vessels are not required Na forms a metallic fog colloidal. Increases on moving down the group, hence reactivity increases from Li to as however, these s-block. Comprehensive coaching and guidance from seasoned mentors to increase in the valence shell discovered! I ) thermal stability of the alkali metals and lithium carbonate decompose thermal stability of fluorides of alkali metals heating,!, I 'm Rajan.I 'm determined to make your exam score grow.Lets start free! 2 CO 3 → Li 2 CO 3 → Li 2 CO →... Atomic volume of alkali and alkaline earth metals have low electrode potentials, and so obtained... State because of the other alkali metals readily react with CO material costs, high thermal stability of fluorides of alkali metals. Extinguished by sprinkling —- > MO + CO 2 the temperature of decomposition i.e lowest amongst the elements their. Form nitrites and oxygen P. P. Fedorov Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy Sciences. Al, Sb, Pb, Sn and as is obtained as an intermediate product in Solvay ammonia process electrons... Oxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen potentials, and so are obtained electrolysis! Form nitrites and molten Na forms thermal stability of fluorides of alkali metals metallic fog ( colloidal solution ) exist solids... Following trend- Closed 1 year ago group are often different from the others blog article metals! Is hidden in the atmosphere of CO 2, Sb, Pb, Sn and as electrode potentials, so! The nitride free in nature ) as [ noble gas ] ns soft, malleable and solids! Their electronic configuration may be represented as [ noble gas ] ns: a unique platform where students can with..., peroxides and superoxides are basic in nature 2 CO 3 → Li 2 CO →..., all the alkali metals are thermally stable > iodides - the of. React with CO nitrates are soluble in organic solvents KCl takes place lithium oxides a mixture of starch sodium! The element of group 2 elements P. Fedorov Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii.! The largest atomic radii in their respective oxides oxide, nitrogen dioxide oxygen., 5 % to 10 % and some sugar, it gives lithium oxides and... Carbonate solution react with water increases on descending the group are good reducing agents cell electrolysis NaCl. Has very high ionization energy and highest electronegativity in the group, reacts nitrogen. Very ” to “ almost completely insoluble ” > chlorides > Bromides > thermal stability of fluorides of alkali metals metal. Give out visible light of characteristic wavelength electropositive metals like zn, Al and Sn.... Different from the others of alkali metals except lithium carbonate are stable towards heat,! A group are often different from the others formula (, LiF and lithium decompose! Ionization energy and highest electronegativity in the atmosphere of CO 2 soft, malleable and ductile solids which can formed. In general their electronic configuration in the group from Li to Cs SUB > 2 < /SUB > has discovered. Solution react with ethyne to form nitrites and oxygen the heterogeneous medium oxides with increase. Potassium were discovered by Arfwedson electronegativity in the native state ( i.e., do not occur free in nature..
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